EDIT: they fixed their official documentation

Official Cisco documentation about setting up NFS server for DNA center is here. The problem is, this is for Ubuntu, and Ubuntu has different names for group “nobody” than CentOS.

So if you get an error saying:

Task error description:
Error during _process_backup(): Internal server error: {"error":{"root_cause":[{"type":"snapshot_creation_exception",
"reason":"[ndp:e522e20b-69e3-45b0-b20c-20138ba1444c.000/AGvhN1eCRH6CtE60mNl3KA] failed to create snapshot"}],"type":"
snapshot_creation_exception","reason":"[ndp:e522e20b-69e3-45b0-b20c-20138ba1444c.000/AGvhN1eCRH6CtE60mNl3KA] failed to
create snapshot","caused_by":{"type":"access_denied_exception","reason":"/var/data/es/snapshots/meta-AGvhN1eCRH6CtE60mNl3KA.dat"}},"status":500}

That means you have the wrong user and group set up on server NFS directory.

For Ubuntu:

chown nobody:nogroup /dir/to/nfs/share

For CentOS:

chown nfsnobody:nfsnobody /dir/to/nfs/share


– raspbian OS
– CA cert, client cert and cert password, client key

You can use .p12 file and convert it to .pem, it will include client cert and client key in the same file. Let’s say you download .p12 file from PfSense cert manager. Convert it with:

openssl pkcs12 -in test.p12 -out test.pem
Enter Import Password: leave empty
Enter PEM pass phrase: testing1234
Verifying - Enter PEM pass phrase: testing1234

First, delete openresolv and dhcpcd5 because it’s conflicting with native network management:

apt purge openresolv dhcpcd5

Disable wpa_supplicant:

systemctl disable wpa_supplicant

Install nmcli:

apt install network-manager

Comment out everything in /etc/network/interfaces and in /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf and then Reboot Pi

Create wifi connection:

nmcli c add type wifi ifname wlan0 con-name "My-Wifi" \
      802-11-wireless.ssid "WIFI-SSID" \
      802-11-wireless-security.key-mgmt wpa-eap \
      802-1x.eap tls \
      802-1x.identity test \
      802-1x.ca-cert /home/pi/CA.crt \
      802-1x.client-cert /home/pi/test.pem \
      802-1x.private-key /home/pi/test.pem \
      802-1x.private-key-password testing1234

Depending on the network-manager version, the commands above might not work, so just enter it manually line by line:

nmcli con add type wifi ifname wlan0 con-name My-Wifi ssid WIFI-SSID
nmcli con edit id wifi
nmcli> set 802-11-wireless.ssid WIFI-SSID
nmcli> set 802-11-wireless-security.key-mgmt wpa-eap
nmcli> set 802-1x.eap tls
nmcli> set 802-1x.identity test
nmcli> set 802-1x.ca-cert /home/pi/CA.crt
nmcli> set 802-1x.client-cert /home/pi/test.pem
nmcli> set 802-1x.private-key-password testing1234
nmcli> set 802-1x.private-key /home/pi/test.pem
nmcli> save
nmcli> quit

Check connection with:

nmcli connection
NAME                UUID                                  TYPE      DEVICE
My-Wifi             f0c28a28-934f-4dbc-823f-b3c1653bb047  wifi      wlan0

Start connection:

nmcli connection up My-Wifi

If you want to start over, you can delete connection with:

nmcli connection delete My-Wifi

You can also view and edit profile at /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/My-Wifi.nmconnection

cat /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/My-Wifi.nmconnection






We are going to install Cisco wireless virtual controller on Proxmox hypervisor and connect it to pfSense router.


  • pfSense router with required VLANS created and tagged to Proxmox (I will not cover how to setup VLANs on pfSense)
  • VLAN capable switch
  • Cisco access point
  • Proxmox hypervisor
  • vWLC iso file (you can get it from Cisco support site if you have a service contract, otherwise search the internet, hint: torrents (CTVM)). Check your access points models and see which vWLC supports your access points. In my case, I want to support some older APs so I installed version 8.3.150. I recommend you to install 8.5.x.

1. Create a new virtual machine in Proxmox
vWLC requires two network interfaces, one for management and one for out of band (OOB) service port. Management interface has to be a trunk (tagged) port (carrying multiple vlans). Service port has to be an access port only (untagged). Let’s say we will use VLAN 20 for management, VLAN 200 for service ports and VLAN 21 for wifi users. Before creating interfaces in vWLC virtual machine, make sure your Proxmox bridges are VLAN aware.

2. Create a new VM and add two interfaces.
First interface should be tagged with service-port VLAN, inĀ  my case VLAN 200. The second interface should have no tag, that means it’s a trunk port (it can carry multiple VLANS).

3. Start up newly created VM with loaded vWLC ISO and begin installation
You will be asked to enter:

– service port interface IP (you can use DHCP or static, this is a tagged/access port interface, with VLAN 200 in my case)
– management interface IP (this is a trunk interface, but it will ask you for a vlan tag that will become native vlan for this interface … Tag it, in my case VLAN 20, it needs to be static IP address, set it to IP address scheme that reflects your VLAN, in my case VLAN 20)
– NTP server
– credentials

After installation is complete, you should be able to access vWLC webGUI via https://management_interface_IP_on_VLAN20

4. Access point provisioning, DHCP option 43
It will happen on management interface vlan, in my case VLAN 20. APs will need to know the IP of the vWLC controller, so we need to setup option 43 in our DHCP server that’s running on pfSense. Option 43 will tell access point the IP of the vWLC controller. You can help yourself with an option 43 generator (https://shimi.net/services/opt43/). More detailed guide from Cisco concerning option 43 is here: https://community.cisco.com/t5/wireless-mobility-documents/configuring-dhcp-option-43-and-option-60/ta-p/3143572

Optionally, you can also add option 60 (VCI – Vendor Class Identifier). You can get APs VCIs here: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/wireless-mobility/wireless-lan-wlan/97066-dhcp-option-43-00.html#anc5

Go to pfSense -> Services -> DHCP Server -> VLAN20 -> Additional BOOTP/DHCP Options -> Display Advanced

Save and apply changes.

EDIT: option 43 should be type string, not text!

5. Switch settings
vWLC supports only Flexconnect mode, that means you need to setup your switch ports (where APs will be connected to it) as a trunk port and setup a native VLAN. For non Cisco terms: untagged + tagged ports. Native VLAN should be the same as management interface, in my case VLAN 20. Trunk should also carry VLAN 21 for wifi clients.

Example for cisco:

interface GigabitEthernet1/0/1
switchport trunk native vlan 20
switchport trunk allowed vlan 20,21
switchport mode trunk

Other vendors have tagging and untagging, so VLAN 20 untagged, VLAN 21 tagged.

6. Connect AP to configured switch port
Connect AP to the switch and wait a few minutes to join the controller. If AP doesn’t join, check logs on WLC controller: MANAGEMENT -> Logs -> Message logs

If you get: (5246) Regulatory Domain Mismatch

Means you have to change country code to match the AP (usually US):

Shutdown radios first:

WLC GUI -> Wireless -> 802.11a/n/ac -> Network -> 802.11a Network Status (untick Enabled and apply)
WLC GUI -> Wireless -> 802.11b/g/n -> Network -> 802.11a Network Status (untick Enabled and apply)

Change country:

WLC GUI -> WIRELESS -> Country -> Tick US and apply

Reenable radios now.

Sometimes AP still won’t join, especially old ones. If you connect AP to a console cable and watch a console, you might get someting like:

*Oct 7 18:44:58.000: %CAPWAP-5-DTLSREQSEND: DTLS connection request sent peer_ip: peer_port: 5246
*Oct 7 18:44:58.477: %DTLS-5-ALERT: Received FATAL : Certificate unknown alert from
*Oct 7 18:44:58.477: %DTLS-5-SEND_ALERT: Send FATAL : Close notify Alert to

This means the certs on AP are expired. You can disable this by SSH into vWLC controller and enter the following commands:

config ap cert-expiry-ignore mic enable
config ap cert-expiry-ignore ssc enable

7. Enable SSID broadcasting
vWLC supports only Flexconnect, so we need to enable it:

Go to WLC GUI -> WIRELESS -> Access Points -> All APs -> select AP from the list -> AP Mode -> FlexConnect and apply

8. Create wireless network
First you need to create VLAN interface for wifi clients.

Go to WLC GUI -> Controller -> Interfaces -> New -> Interface name: vlan21 -> VLAN Id: 21 -> Apply

Now create WLAN network

Go to WLC GUI -> WLANs -> Create new -> Enter Profile Name and SSID -> tick Status enabled and select Interface/Interface Group(G) vlan21 -> go to Security -> Layer 2 -> scroll down -> tick PSK Enable and create a wifi password -> Apply

9. Enable VLANs on AP
You need to setup native VLAN (in my case VLAN 20) on APs and add WLAN-VLAN mappings.

Go to WLC GUI -> WIRELESS -> Access Points -> All APs -> select AP from the list -> FlexConnect, tick VLAN support and enter native VLAN:

Next click on VLAN Mappings. Tick SSID under WLAN id, enter wifi clients VLAN under VLAN ID (in my case VLAN 21) and click Go at section Make AP specific.

10. You wifi clients should be able to connect now

11. 60 days trial license

There is a 60 days trial license, but you can enable RTU (right to use) license that will not expire (note: this is against cisco TOS).

Go to WLC GUI -> MANAGEMENT -> Software Activation -> Licenses -> license count: custom number -> Set Count -> Accept EULA and you are done.

12. Quick topology drawing